Caching particles (Standard) can’t be filtered. You need to use MG-Selections.
Perhaps you can work with the MG-Tracer, and building a Spline along the particle path. Then you can delete anything that is not needed at all. There are limitations with that idea.
If I had a scene file, I might be able to suggest more; No idea yet, though.
Here is an example
Have you tried Alembic? But as well here, no idea about the specific filtering that you have asked for.