A scene file would be nice, so I have all the pieces of information about how you would like to work. So, perhaps I can see much faster why you can’t see the underlying texture. Currently, I have no idea what you have set up. A tip would be, perhaps check the Render Settings>Options. But I’m guessing here, which I find more and more professional.
For example, I could see if the spheres are hollow or work like glass-marbles, but again, I start guessing here. Here is a bubble sketch, use the CV-HDRI or your own:
You should also share how close the camera goes, i.e., how fine the details are. Which means, given a particular resolution, if spheres are really needed, or if a Bump, Displacement or Normal map can do the trick. No idea at the moment.
I’m aware that fluid simulations are not the central domain of native tools, I do not promise anything here. Over the last decade+ I have seen Foam options showing up from time to time. However, given the fact that they have vanished might an indicator of the quality.
I guess a completely different game is given with X-Particles, but I have sadly no access to a license, so I can’t go there. Perhaps check over in their forum, if there is something that works for you.
To get the edge between water and beach, Fields seems to be the fastest way, an excellent source of ideas is this one here
Here is a little sketch, to get the discussion started.
Enjoy your weekend